Monthly Archives: March 2018

Agribusiness of Agriculture Asparagus

Agribusiness of Agriculture Asparagus

Agribusiness of Agriculture Series. Asparagus, by its scientific name Asparagus officinalis is a spring vegetable belonging to the family Asparagaceae. The area of ​​origin of the plant covers North Africa, Europe and West Asia.

asparagus

asparagus

Agribusiness of Agriculture: Characteristic Asparagus

Biology of the plant Asparagus is a perennial herb whose size varies between 100 and 150 cm. Its needle-like leaves have a length of between 6 and 32 mm and a width of 1 mm. Its radiant roots are fasciculate. Asparagus is a dioecious species, that is to say that its male flowers and its female flowers are borne by different plants. As a result, only the female feet of asparagus bear fruit. The genus Asparagus has 12 spontaneous species. There are 5 in the hexagon including Asparagus officinalis, A. albus, A. acutifolius, A. maritimus and A. tenuifolius. All are edible. However, the maritime asparagus (A. maritimus) has a very pronounced bitterness. Asparagus emits rhizomes, which evolve to give new stems

3 types of asparagus are:

The green asparagus, which is a shoot whose development took place in the open in the presence of light.

The violet asparagus is an asparagus whose end has bloomed in the light of the sun. It has a fruity taste with some hints of bitterness.

White asparagus, which is an asparagus whose development has been carried out underground in the dark. It is an asparagus with a delicate and refined taste.

The taste of asparagus is reminiscent of artichoke. Asparagus is 93% water and contains very few calories and is low in sodium. it is an important source of vitamin B6, zinc, magnesium and calcium. Asparagus contains very high levels of vitamins K, C and E, dietary fiber, protein, beta carotene, copper, iron, potassium and phosphorus. It also contains vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B9.

Agribusiness of Agriculture: Cultivation of asparagus

Asparagus flourishes well in areas where the ground freezes in winter and in regions with dry winters.

Agribusiness of Agriculture: Soil preparation and sowing

Asparagus prefers light, well-drained soils that warm quickly in the spring. Soils engorged with water are prejudicial to it. The seedbed should be about 1.20 m wide. It will have to be rid of any perennial grass and any root. Aging manure or compost will be incorporated during this step.

They do not have to waste energy to produce flowers and seeds. Some varieties selected like the American variety “Jersey Knight”, only produce male plants. Planting 1-year-old claws allows harvesting 1 year before planting seeded seeds. Seeding of seeds should be avoided as much as the shock of transplanting slows down production.

Agribusiness of Agriculture: Fight against diseases and pests

Diseases that affect asparagus include purple seed disease, rust, Fusarium wilt , rhizoctonia violet and needle blight. It is also the target of insect pests such as asparagus leaf blotch, asparagus fly, asparagus aphid and gray seedling fly.

 

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Agriculture technology: Diseases of tomato

Agriculture technology: Diseases of tomato

Agriculture technology. The tomato is a fruit of the family Solanaceae that is native to South America. She is sensitive to many pests and diseases. Cultivating tomatoes with a bio objective is difficult to achieve. In order to cultivate the tomato organically it seems that the right method is only a total coverage of the plans, or the use of nets in certain areas.

Agriculture technology: The black mold rot of the tomato

Tomatoes exposed to moisture or various harmful micro-organisms can be affected by several pathologies, including black rot or black mold rot. This pathology with fungal strain alters the quality of the tomato.

Agriculture technology: The pathogen of black rot

Alternaria alternata is the causal agent of rot black mold. This phytopathogenic fungus belongs to the family Plesosporacea. Several climatic conditions favor the development of this harmful micro-organism, especially the high temperatures and the humidity resulting from the heavy dews, the precipitation or the irrigations by sprinkling. These conditions provide an ideal environment for this fungus.

Agriculture technology: The symptoms of black rot

Symptoms begin with small superficial, concave and moist lesions on the fruit. Over time, they spread, grow, brown and turn black. When hot, humid weather prevails, a velvety dark layer of spore appears on the surface of the lesions that occur within the inner tissue of the fruit. The interior of the infected fruit is marked by black necrosis. A black mold alters the ripe fruit.

Tomato

Tomato

Agriculture technology: The fight against the black mold rot

To reduce or eliminate the risk of black rot, preventive measures are needed, including good density of planting with adequate spacing between plants and good aeration of tomato fields. Sprinkler irrigation promotes the moistening of plants, so we must abandon this practice while focusing on localized irrigation or drip irrigation. To minimize the spread of black rot, infected fruit must be destroyed. In addition, it is necessary to avoid the bruising related to the handling of the fruits. Also, chemicals, in this case fungicides , can effectively fight against the pathogen of this pathology.

Agriculture technology: The black shoulder of the tomato

Black shoulder is a non-parasitic condition that affects the tomato. It appears in the peduncular area of ​​the fruit that is called shoulder by English speakers. The humid periods or dominated by the freshness, the rain are favorable conditions for the development of this pathology which degrades the quality of the tomato.

Agriculture technology: Black shoulder pathogen

The cause or causes of the black shoulder are undetermined. Similarly, the pathogens mainly responsible for this pathology are not defined. Environmental conditions, such as moisture or precipitation that occur after a drought, are factors that may precipitate the onset of this condition. However, apart from weather conditions, the involvement of a phytogenic fungus called Alternaria alternata is not to be ruled out. It would infiltrate and settle in the tissues through the small cracks of the fruit and thus cause fruit rot.

Tomato2

Tomato2

Agriculture technology: The symptoms of black shoulder

The black shoulder attacks green fruits, mainly the area that is circumscribed around the stem that bears the fruit. It manifests itself with the appearance of hollow lesions associated with spots, gray streaks in the peduncular zone. These irregular lesions of varying sizes extend and change color, becoming dark gray or black. The green fruits thus contaminated are marked by microcracks, localized rot and tissue collapse.

Agriculture technology: shoulder

The symptoms of the black shoulder are irreversible, which is why the fight against this pathology is essentially preventive. It is a matter of taking precautions to avoid the prevalence of high humidity in the tomato fields by promoting a good spacing between the plants and a good circulation of the airflow in the plantation. Varieties resistant to this condition should also be used.

Tomato3

Tomato3

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Agriculture technology: The Black Rot of Tomato

Agriculture technology: The black rot of tomato

Agriculture technology. Anthrax is a plant pathology that affects the tomato under the effect of some particularly hot and dry weather conditions. This fungal pathology, widespread in subtropical and tropical countries, leads to significant yield losses.

Agriculture technology: The pathogen

Macraphomina phaseolina is the fungus responsible for the appearance of anthrax. Periods of drought and high heat (30 to 35 ° C), associated with a lack of water supply (water stress) can promote the spread of this microorganism. This fungal and soil pathogen can live in soil and crops for over 4 years.

Agriculture technology: Symptoms

The pathogen of anthrax infects the root and stem of tomato by infiltrating into the cell wall of the plant. The root system is then marked by brown to dark lesions. At the level of the lower stem, there are black changes that affect the vessels and marrow with the consequent disintegration of vascular fibers. A section of the stem can observe small black sclerotia of about 0.5 mm in diameter on these fibers. These sclerotia also visible on the underground part of the tomato, give a smoky appearance inside the stem. The anthrax rot causes a rot of the stem. At an advanced stage, the lower leaves turn yellow, the plant wither and stunt, then die prematurely.

Agriculture technology: The fight

There is no effective fungicide to control anthrax. Therefore, it is important to work to minimize the risk of this fungal pathology. To do this, use seed that is free from infection or varieties that are resistant to this disease or drought. In terms of cultural practices, rotations of crops over 3 or 4 years, the spacing of plants and aeration of the plantation are preventive measures. In addition, to avoid water stress, tomato fields must be properly irrigated and mulched to maintain good moisture under the plants.

The black rot of tomato

The black rot of tomato

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Agriculture technology: Apical Rot or Black Spot of Tomato

Agriculture technology: Apical rot or black spot of tomato

Agriculture technology. Following an alternation of dry weather and wet weather, the apical rot  can be reach tomato, a disease commonly referred to as “black spot”. This is also called “black ass disease”.

Agriculture technology: A physiological problem at the base of apical rot

If we stick to the strict sense of the term, apical rot is not an illness as such. In fact, its occurrence is not caused by a bacterium, nor a virus even less by a fungus. Apical rot is simply due to a physiological problem mainly related to several factors. These factors stem from the failure to respect certain good tomato growing conditions.

Agriculture technology: Factors triggering apical rot

When certain elements are not taken into account in the tomato crop, there is a good chance that the fruit of the harvest has symptoms of apical rot. This is largely due to an insufficient supply of water, as well as a calcium deficiency in the growing soil. In addition, too low a pH and a high content of potassium, ammonium or magnesium may allow the development of apical rot. In addition, some bad seeds result in partial destruction of the roots and promote the occurrence of the black spot.

The disease leaves a black spot on the part of the tomato opposite to the peduncle. This is first of all very small and localized. But gradually, it grows and ends up destroying the apical part of the fruit. It can grow and spread over a good half of the tomato. In case of seriousness, the disease spreads on all other fruits and makes them bad for consumption. This black spot has a circular shape and a leather look. It should be known that this symptom does not appear on the leaves and the stem of the plant

Agriculture technology: Tomato varieties most susceptible to root rot

Some varieties of tomato show good resistance to apical rot, which is not for others that are very sensitive to it. These are elongated varieties such as San Marzano, Andean Horned and Banana orange.

Agriculture technology: Fight against apical rot

The best way to control apical rot is to ensure that all the good growing conditions at the base of the disease occur. It is therefore necessary to water regularly and properly and to mulch so that the soil remains cool. Do not hesitate to make a calcium amendment, with calcium nitrate, on soils that are too clayey, sandy or acidic. The climatic conditions must be taken into account in tomato cultivation to avoid as much as possible the alternation of long dry periods and long wet periods.

Black Spot of Tomato

Black Spot of Tomato

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Agriculture technology: The Fruit Fly of The Pacific

Agriculture technology: The fruit fly of the Pacific

Agriculture technology. The fruit fly is the term used to describe small flies of the family Drosophilidae. This term also makes it possible to evoke a category of devastating and very dangerous flies belonging to the Tephritidae family. In this one, we find several species of the genus Bactrocera, of which one of the most common is Bactrocera xanthodes, better known under the name of “fruit fly of the Pacific”.

Agriculture technology: Characteristic of Fly

The adult fly is thin and translucent, with a brown-orange color. This insect likes urban and suburban environments where there are plenty of fruit trees . It is absent from forest areas. The Pacific fruit fly feeds on host plants on which they mate. She manages to bite them using her ovipositor, and lays her eggs shallow. After the females have laid their eggs, maggots emerge and grow in the decaying fruits. They then perform their pupation on the ground. This fly attacks at least 24 species including papaya , mandarin , avocado and breadfruit. It is also spreading on about 10 wild species. Adult flies are attracted by methyl eugenol, an aromatic organic compound found in many plants. They especially like hot weather.

Agriculture technology: Damage caused

It has been found that this fly infests 62% of the ripe fruit of the American Samoa breadfruit. The marks of infection are clearly visible through necrotic traces of the bites. This insect is very dangerous and threatens the productivity of fruits by lowering their quality. The result is a disruption in trade, which results in significant financial losses.

Agriculture technology: Fighting the Pacific fruit fly

Harvesting of ripe fruit should be done to limit the development of the pathogen. They must then be packaged and kept away from crops. By practicing the trapping technique, we can capture the adults. In this case, a mixture of methyl eugenol and insecticide is made. Everything must be placed in the fruit trees. This trap, in addition to limiting the proliferation of adults, also makes it possible to monitor the invasion of new areas. It is good to renew it every 3 months.

Bactrocera xanthodes

Bactrocera xanthodes

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Agriculture technology: Tomato Late Blight

Agriculture technology: Tomato late blight

Agriculture technology. Devastating cryptogamic disease, late blight is reported on the tomato and causes severe crop losses after destroying the plants. It is considered the most dangerous tomato disease and also affects other plants of the Solanaceae family such as potatoes.

Agriculture technology: Agents responsible for tomato late blight and their transmission

Two parasites are at the base of tomato late blight. These are Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora parasitica. They are often taken for mushrooms when they are not in reality. Indeed, these parasites are oomycetes, eukaryotic microorganisms of the Peronosporaceae family. They are very active when the humidity is high and the temperature is below 25 ° C. Their transmission is slowed down when the conditions are hot and dry. When all is reunited for their proliferation, these parasites develop quickly and generally, one realizes attacks only when the damage is already done.

Late blight leaves irregular tomato spots on the foliage of the tomato, yellow then brown, and causes it to dry out. The petioles and stems are brown and dry. On the fruit, the passage of downy mildew is generally at the level of the peduncles. It follows their decay and the presence of black spots. The fruits are quite bumpy. Most of these symptoms appear in late summer.

Agriculture technology: Fight against late blight tomato

Prevention is the best way to control tomato late blight. But before thinking about it for the next crops, all parts of the plant affected by the disease should be removed as soon as possible to prevent the proliferation of parasites. In preventive treatment, one can spray in Bordeaux hot and wet Bordeaux mixture or a decoction of horsetail. In addition, by adopting good farming methods, we can avoid tomato late blight. It is for example recommended to water exclusively at the foot of the plants so as not to wet the foliage. And then, it is good to aerate the crops and ensure that there is no potato in the area. Also, there are varieties of tomatoes less susceptible to mildew that can be favored. Finally, the practice of crop rotation avoids this disease.

Tomato late blight

Tomato late blight

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Agriculture technology: Bacterial Disease of bronzed spots of tomato

Agriculture technology: Bacterial Disease of bronzed spots of tomato

Agriculture technology. It is not uncommon to see on tomatoes unfit for consumption tanned spots. This is due to a dangerous virus capable of devastating an entire crop.

Agriculture technology: Bacterial Agent responsible for tanned spots and its transmission

It is a phytovirus of the genus Tospovirus, belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, which is responsible for bronzed spots, one of the most serious viral diseases of the tomato . This is wilt virus spott the Tomato, or simply TSWV, a virus that affects many host plants, including weeds , ornamentals and market garden plants. Its transmission is the result of several biting insects including thrips. And Frankliniella occidentalis is one of the most active California thrips. Thrips like warm climates.

Agriculture technology: Symptoms of tanned spots

A variety of symptoms can occur on sick tomatoes. And sometimes, these symptoms are similar to those of other diseases, which often causes confusion. In general, however, there are bronzed or purplish-brown hues on young leaves that later turn into several small dark spots. The leaves can also be rolled up. The plant generally knows a stop of growth which leads to the phenomenon of dwarfism. This situation occurs after an infection occurred on the plants of the previous year.

Agriculture technology: Fight against bronzed spots of tomato

There is no real cure for bronzed spots of tomato. Market gardeners with their crops in risk areas may choose certain varieties of tomatoes that show genetic resistance to TSWV. Otherwise, they must choose only certified plants. It is also good to look after the immediate environment of the crop and avoid the neighborhood of tomato greenhouses.

 

Bacterial Disease of bronzed spots of tomato

Bacterial Disease of bronzed spots of tomato

 

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Agriculture technology: Bacterial mange of tomato

Agriculture technology: Bacterial mange of tomato

Agriculture technology. Spread in tomato fields, bacterial scab is an infectious disease, particularly damaging. It causes significant drops in yields. The appearance and development of this bacteriosis are favored by climatic conditions, especially an optimal temperature of 25 ° C and a high hygrometry.

Agriculture technology: Pathogen of bacterial mange of tomato

The causative agent of bacterial scabies is Xanthomonas campetsris. The spread of this bacterium is favored by contaminated seeds and plants, sprinkler irrigation , splashing or splashing water resulting from sprinkler irrigation. This pathogen develops when certain conditions prevail, namely excessive nitrogen fertilization, fairly high temperatures and high humidity associated with storms and rains.

Agriculture technology: Symptoms of bacterial mange of tomato

Symptoms of bacterial mange are evident on leaves, stems and fruits. Infected leaves are marked by small translucent lesions on the leaflets and at the edge of the lamina. Over time, brown, circular, angular spots 2 to 3 mm in diameter appear. They are surrounded by a yellowish halo. Under the effect of moisture or precipitation, these spots become dark brown or black with necrosis in the center. The severely contaminated leaves turn yellow, then dry out and fall prematurely.

Similar lesions, including brown spots, also affect the stem, petioles and sepals of the fruit. These lesions are first greasy on the fruits, then appear as corky pustules up to 1 cm in diameter. They are haloed with an oily halo. The appearance of bacterial scab thus results in the putrefaction and rot of the tomato.

Agriculture technology: The fight against bacterial mange of tomato

 

The fight against bacterial mange requires preventive measures that slow down the spread of the disease or reduce the risk of infection of the plant. These consist in using the disinfected seeds and avoid not only any manipulation of the plants when the fields are wet but also any excess of water on the plants. To do this, it is necessary to space the plants and aerate the crops by avoiding the sprinkler irrigation practices that are conducive to the development of this bacteriose. We must then favor drip irrigation. The removal and disposal of infected plants is strongly recommended to control the spread of bacterial scab.

 

Xanthomonas campetsri in tomato

Xanthomonas campetsri in tomatoXanthomonas campetsri in tomato

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Agriculture technology: Fusarium vascular disease of tomato

Agriculture technology: Fusarium vascular disease

Agriculture technology. Tomato plants can be affected by several fusarium diseases, including Fusarium wilt. This fungal pathology, which is particularly damaging, affects the vegetative growth of the tomato. Also called fusarium wilt, it is usually found in tropical or subtropical climates.

Agriculture technology: The pathogen of vascular fusariosis

It is a mushroom of the genus Fusarium called Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici, abbreviated as FOL, which is the causative agent of vascular fusariosis. This phytopathogenic microorganism is cold-resistant with a preference for high temperatures and humidity. It grows rapidly in soils rich in nitrogen and low in potassium. It can live in the soil at a depth of 80 cm for several years.

Agriculture technology: Symptoms of Vascular Fusarium

The fungus responsible for vascular fusariosis infiltrates into the roots and spreads throughout the plant through the vessels that conduct water into the various organs of the tomato . This pathology begins with the longitudinal yellowing of one side of the plant or leaves. This yellows affects first the basal leaves, then the oldest, then the infected foliage is characterized by wilting, browning and defoliation. The vascular tissues also brown, the stem, marked by lesions, fades. At an advanced stage, this pathology slows down the growth of the infected plant, which produces no more fruit or very little, dries up and dies prematurely.

Agriculture technology: The fight against

Fusarium wilt There are no chemicals or fungicides that are particularly effective against Fusarium wilt. However, preventive measures can eliminate or minimize the risk of infection or spread of this disease. The planting of resistant varieties, the improvement of soil conditions through good drainage and moisture levels, and the destruction of infected plants are prophylactic measures against the spread of fusarium wilt. Also, tools or equipment previously in contact with the infected soil should be disinfected and root injury should be avoided as well as any excessive application of nitrogen fertilization. Soil fumigation also helps to combat the phytopathogenic agent of vascular fusariosis.

Fusarium vascular disease of tomato

Fusarium vascular disease of tomato

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Agriculture technology: The melting of tomato seedlings

Agriculture technology: The melting of tomato seedlings

Agriculture technology. Seeds and tomato seedlings that have barely emerged from the soil may be affected by a condition commonly known as damping-off. This plant pathology, which weakens or puts an end to seed germination or the cycle of growth and life of seedlings, can come from several particularly harmful micro-organisms.

Agriculture technology: Pathogens

Several species of fungi living in the soil or on the seeds are responsible for the appearance of this pathology, including the phytopathogenic agents of the genus Fusarium, Alternaria, Botrytis, Phoma, Pythium. A bacterium called Rhizoctonia solani or common rhizoctonia may also be the cause of this pathology. A high hygrometry at ground level or air is a risk factor that can promote the development of these phytopathogenic agents.

Agriculture technology: SYMPTOMS

The manifestation of symptoms depends on the microorganism (s) that cause the pathology but also the period of infection (before or after the emergence of seedlings). In general, before seedling emergence, seeds can be infected during germination. The infection progresses and precipitates browning and decay of seeds before they emerge from the soil. These decompose and disintegrate quickly. In the early stages of growth, just after seedling emergence, damping-off causes browning, drying, subsidence and death of seedlings. When this infection is late with the appearance of two or three leaves, brown and wet lesions appear at the root or base of the stem of the young plants. These infected areas rot, seedlings then grow hard and die later

Agriculture technology: Fight

A humid environment is conducive to the development of pathogens. Therefore, control of damping-off requires preventive measures that reduce the risk of infection by promoting adequate moisture and aeration of the plantation. To do this, avoid excessive watering, work for good drainage of the soil and irrigate the plantation in the morning to facilitate the drying of leaves and soil. Also, it is important to promote the flow of air by reducing the sowing rate or by lightening the seedlings too dense.

The use of infection-free seed, the destruction of infected plants, and hygienic measures of disinfecting agricultural implements or equipment in contact with contaminated soil greatly reduce the spread of seedling damping. Moreover, the application of a fungicide or a bactericide, far from being a preventive measure, nevertheless makes it possible to kill pathogens.

 

tomato seedlings

tomato seedlings

 

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