Agriculture Series Leafy vegetables, Endive

Agriculture: Endive

Agriculture Endive. Endive is a biennial Asteraceae that is produced as an annual plant. It is grown for its whitened shoots or chicory. Endive (Cichorium endivia) is not to be confused with Belgian chicory, which is a variety of chicory. Legend has it that endive was invented by a peasant who wanted to hide his crop of chicory.

Agriculture: Endive variety

Two main types of endive are grown:

curly endive with thin curly green leaves;

the escarole, which has pale green leaves.

Agriculture: Endive Culture

Endive cultivation takes place in 4 phases, namely sowing, pulling, forcing and breaking.

Agriculture: Endive seedling

During this phase endive seeds are sown. Seeding takes place in the spring with a seedling dose of 4 grams of seed per m2. Seeding can be done on the fly. A layer of sieved soil may be poured over the seeds to promote germination. After germination, we will perform a reduction in order to obtain an optimal growth density. Mating will be done when the plants are in the 3-leaf stage.

Agriculture: Endive Root removal

Endives sown in the spring give roots that will have to be torn off during the fall. These roots will then be stored.

Agriculture: Endive forcing

This is the operation that allows to have edible endive. The principle is simple, it consists of budding the harvested roots in total absence of light. This operation can be performed in the earth or in temperature controlled rooms. The absence of light is essential to have endives without bitterness.

Agriculture: Endive breaking

Breakage is the operation of separating the bleached bud from the root. It is done by hand.

Agriculture: Endive Fight against enemies

Endive diseases and pests include rust , minnow, endive maggot and white grubs. The fight against the minet can be done with Bordelaise. Parathion and malathion effectively fight the endive fly.

Agriculture: Endive retention

Endives lend themselves well to conservation. This can be done in the refrigerator in the crisper or at room temperature for several days. Whatever the technique used, care should be taken to keep them in the dark to avoid the appearance of green spots.

Agriculture: Endive Consumption

Endive is a vegetable very popular with Western populations. It can be eaten cooked or raw. It is used to make salads and soups. Endive is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is rich especially in vitamins A, K and B9. Endive contains an appreciable amount of dietary fiber. Endive is one of the richest selenium vegetables, a mineral with antioxidant powers. It contains 0.013 mg / 100g.  The most popular hot endive dishes are ham endives and béchamel endive gratin.


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