Category Archives: Agriculture

Agriculture technology: Apical Rot or Black Spot of Tomato

Agriculture technology: Apical rot or black spot of tomato

Agriculture technology. Following an alternation of dry weather and wet weather, the apical rot  can be reach tomato, a disease commonly referred to as “black spot”. This is also called “black ass disease”.

Agriculture technology: A physiological problem at the base of apical rot

If we stick to the strict sense of the term, apical rot is not an illness as such. In fact, its occurrence is not caused by a bacterium, nor a virus even less by a fungus. Apical rot is simply due to a physiological problem mainly related to several factors. These factors stem from the failure to respect certain good tomato growing conditions.

Agriculture technology: Factors triggering apical rot

When certain elements are not taken into account in the tomato crop, there is a good chance that the fruit of the harvest has symptoms of apical rot. This is largely due to an insufficient supply of water, as well as a calcium deficiency in the growing soil. In addition, too low a pH and a high content of potassium, ammonium or magnesium may allow the development of apical rot. In addition, some bad seeds result in partial destruction of the roots and promote the occurrence of the black spot.

The disease leaves a black spot on the part of the tomato opposite to the peduncle. This is first of all very small and localized. But gradually, it grows and ends up destroying the apical part of the fruit. It can grow and spread over a good half of the tomato. In case of seriousness, the disease spreads on all other fruits and makes them bad for consumption. This black spot has a circular shape and a leather look. It should be known that this symptom does not appear on the leaves and the stem of the plant

Agriculture technology: Tomato varieties most susceptible to root rot

Some varieties of tomato show good resistance to apical rot, which is not for others that are very sensitive to it. These are elongated varieties such as San Marzano, Andean Horned and Banana orange.

Agriculture technology: Fight against apical rot

The best way to control apical rot is to ensure that all the good growing conditions at the base of the disease occur. It is therefore necessary to water regularly and properly and to mulch so that the soil remains cool. Do not hesitate to make a calcium amendment, with calcium nitrate, on soils that are too clayey, sandy or acidic. The climatic conditions must be taken into account in tomato cultivation to avoid as much as possible the alternation of long dry periods and long wet periods.

Black Spot of Tomato

Black Spot of Tomato

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Agriculture technology: The Fruit Fly of The Pacific

Agriculture technology: The fruit fly of the Pacific

Agriculture technology. The fruit fly is the term used to describe small flies of the family Drosophilidae. This term also makes it possible to evoke a category of devastating and very dangerous flies belonging to the Tephritidae family. In this one, we find several species of the genus Bactrocera, of which one of the most common is Bactrocera xanthodes, better known under the name of “fruit fly of the Pacific”.

Agriculture technology: Characteristic of Fly

The adult fly is thin and translucent, with a brown-orange color. This insect likes urban and suburban environments where there are plenty of fruit trees . It is absent from forest areas. The Pacific fruit fly feeds on host plants on which they mate. She manages to bite them using her ovipositor, and lays her eggs shallow. After the females have laid their eggs, maggots emerge and grow in the decaying fruits. They then perform their pupation on the ground. This fly attacks at least 24 species including papaya , mandarin , avocado and breadfruit. It is also spreading on about 10 wild species. Adult flies are attracted by methyl eugenol, an aromatic organic compound found in many plants. They especially like hot weather.

Agriculture technology: Damage caused

It has been found that this fly infests 62% of the ripe fruit of the American Samoa breadfruit. The marks of infection are clearly visible through necrotic traces of the bites. This insect is very dangerous and threatens the productivity of fruits by lowering their quality. The result is a disruption in trade, which results in significant financial losses.

Agriculture technology: Fighting the Pacific fruit fly

Harvesting of ripe fruit should be done to limit the development of the pathogen. They must then be packaged and kept away from crops. By practicing the trapping technique, we can capture the adults. In this case, a mixture of methyl eugenol and insecticide is made. Everything must be placed in the fruit trees. This trap, in addition to limiting the proliferation of adults, also makes it possible to monitor the invasion of new areas. It is good to renew it every 3 months.

Bactrocera xanthodes

Bactrocera xanthodes

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Agriculture technology: Tomato Late Blight

Agriculture technology: Tomato late blight

Agriculture technology. Devastating cryptogamic disease, late blight is reported on the tomato and causes severe crop losses after destroying the plants. It is considered the most dangerous tomato disease and also affects other plants of the Solanaceae family such as potatoes.

Agriculture technology: Agents responsible for tomato late blight and their transmission

Two parasites are at the base of tomato late blight. These are Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora parasitica. They are often taken for mushrooms when they are not in reality. Indeed, these parasites are oomycetes, eukaryotic microorganisms of the Peronosporaceae family. They are very active when the humidity is high and the temperature is below 25 ° C. Their transmission is slowed down when the conditions are hot and dry. When all is reunited for their proliferation, these parasites develop quickly and generally, one realizes attacks only when the damage is already done.

Late blight leaves irregular tomato spots on the foliage of the tomato, yellow then brown, and causes it to dry out. The petioles and stems are brown and dry. On the fruit, the passage of downy mildew is generally at the level of the peduncles. It follows their decay and the presence of black spots. The fruits are quite bumpy. Most of these symptoms appear in late summer.

Agriculture technology: Fight against late blight tomato

Prevention is the best way to control tomato late blight. But before thinking about it for the next crops, all parts of the plant affected by the disease should be removed as soon as possible to prevent the proliferation of parasites. In preventive treatment, one can spray in Bordeaux hot and wet Bordeaux mixture or a decoction of horsetail. In addition, by adopting good farming methods, we can avoid tomato late blight. It is for example recommended to water exclusively at the foot of the plants so as not to wet the foliage. And then, it is good to aerate the crops and ensure that there is no potato in the area. Also, there are varieties of tomatoes less susceptible to mildew that can be favored. Finally, the practice of crop rotation avoids this disease.

Tomato late blight

Tomato late blight

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Agriculture technology: Bacterial Disease of bronzed spots of tomato

Agriculture technology: Bacterial Disease of bronzed spots of tomato

Agriculture technology. It is not uncommon to see on tomatoes unfit for consumption tanned spots. This is due to a dangerous virus capable of devastating an entire crop.

Agriculture technology: Bacterial Agent responsible for tanned spots and its transmission

It is a phytovirus of the genus Tospovirus, belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, which is responsible for bronzed spots, one of the most serious viral diseases of the tomato . This is wilt virus spott the Tomato, or simply TSWV, a virus that affects many host plants, including weeds , ornamentals and market garden plants. Its transmission is the result of several biting insects including thrips. And Frankliniella occidentalis is one of the most active California thrips. Thrips like warm climates.

Agriculture technology: Symptoms of tanned spots

A variety of symptoms can occur on sick tomatoes. And sometimes, these symptoms are similar to those of other diseases, which often causes confusion. In general, however, there are bronzed or purplish-brown hues on young leaves that later turn into several small dark spots. The leaves can also be rolled up. The plant generally knows a stop of growth which leads to the phenomenon of dwarfism. This situation occurs after an infection occurred on the plants of the previous year.

Agriculture technology: Fight against bronzed spots of tomato

There is no real cure for bronzed spots of tomato. Market gardeners with their crops in risk areas may choose certain varieties of tomatoes that show genetic resistance to TSWV. Otherwise, they must choose only certified plants. It is also good to look after the immediate environment of the crop and avoid the neighborhood of tomato greenhouses.

 

Bacterial Disease of bronzed spots of tomato

Bacterial Disease of bronzed spots of tomato

 

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Agriculture technology: Bacterial mange of tomato

Agriculture technology: Bacterial mange of tomato

Agriculture technology. Spread in tomato fields, bacterial scab is an infectious disease, particularly damaging. It causes significant drops in yields. The appearance and development of this bacteriosis are favored by climatic conditions, especially an optimal temperature of 25 ° C and a high hygrometry.

Agriculture technology: Pathogen of bacterial mange of tomato

The causative agent of bacterial scabies is Xanthomonas campetsris. The spread of this bacterium is favored by contaminated seeds and plants, sprinkler irrigation , splashing or splashing water resulting from sprinkler irrigation. This pathogen develops when certain conditions prevail, namely excessive nitrogen fertilization, fairly high temperatures and high humidity associated with storms and rains.

Agriculture technology: Symptoms of bacterial mange of tomato

Symptoms of bacterial mange are evident on leaves, stems and fruits. Infected leaves are marked by small translucent lesions on the leaflets and at the edge of the lamina. Over time, brown, circular, angular spots 2 to 3 mm in diameter appear. They are surrounded by a yellowish halo. Under the effect of moisture or precipitation, these spots become dark brown or black with necrosis in the center. The severely contaminated leaves turn yellow, then dry out and fall prematurely.

Similar lesions, including brown spots, also affect the stem, petioles and sepals of the fruit. These lesions are first greasy on the fruits, then appear as corky pustules up to 1 cm in diameter. They are haloed with an oily halo. The appearance of bacterial scab thus results in the putrefaction and rot of the tomato.

Agriculture technology: The fight against bacterial mange of tomato

 

The fight against bacterial mange requires preventive measures that slow down the spread of the disease or reduce the risk of infection of the plant. These consist in using the disinfected seeds and avoid not only any manipulation of the plants when the fields are wet but also any excess of water on the plants. To do this, it is necessary to space the plants and aerate the crops by avoiding the sprinkler irrigation practices that are conducive to the development of this bacteriose. We must then favor drip irrigation. The removal and disposal of infected plants is strongly recommended to control the spread of bacterial scab.

 

Xanthomonas campetsri in tomato

Xanthomonas campetsri in tomatoXanthomonas campetsri in tomato

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Agriculture technology: Fusarium vascular disease of tomato

Agriculture technology: Fusarium vascular disease

Agriculture technology. Tomato plants can be affected by several fusarium diseases, including Fusarium wilt. This fungal pathology, which is particularly damaging, affects the vegetative growth of the tomato. Also called fusarium wilt, it is usually found in tropical or subtropical climates.

Agriculture technology: The pathogen of vascular fusariosis

It is a mushroom of the genus Fusarium called Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici, abbreviated as FOL, which is the causative agent of vascular fusariosis. This phytopathogenic microorganism is cold-resistant with a preference for high temperatures and humidity. It grows rapidly in soils rich in nitrogen and low in potassium. It can live in the soil at a depth of 80 cm for several years.

Agriculture technology: Symptoms of Vascular Fusarium

The fungus responsible for vascular fusariosis infiltrates into the roots and spreads throughout the plant through the vessels that conduct water into the various organs of the tomato . This pathology begins with the longitudinal yellowing of one side of the plant or leaves. This yellows affects first the basal leaves, then the oldest, then the infected foliage is characterized by wilting, browning and defoliation. The vascular tissues also brown, the stem, marked by lesions, fades. At an advanced stage, this pathology slows down the growth of the infected plant, which produces no more fruit or very little, dries up and dies prematurely.

Agriculture technology: The fight against

Fusarium wilt There are no chemicals or fungicides that are particularly effective against Fusarium wilt. However, preventive measures can eliminate or minimize the risk of infection or spread of this disease. The planting of resistant varieties, the improvement of soil conditions through good drainage and moisture levels, and the destruction of infected plants are prophylactic measures against the spread of fusarium wilt. Also, tools or equipment previously in contact with the infected soil should be disinfected and root injury should be avoided as well as any excessive application of nitrogen fertilization. Soil fumigation also helps to combat the phytopathogenic agent of vascular fusariosis.

Fusarium vascular disease of tomato

Fusarium vascular disease of tomato

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Agriculture technology: The melting of tomato seedlings

Agriculture technology: The melting of tomato seedlings

Agriculture technology. Seeds and tomato seedlings that have barely emerged from the soil may be affected by a condition commonly known as damping-off. This plant pathology, which weakens or puts an end to seed germination or the cycle of growth and life of seedlings, can come from several particularly harmful micro-organisms.

Agriculture technology: Pathogens

Several species of fungi living in the soil or on the seeds are responsible for the appearance of this pathology, including the phytopathogenic agents of the genus Fusarium, Alternaria, Botrytis, Phoma, Pythium. A bacterium called Rhizoctonia solani or common rhizoctonia may also be the cause of this pathology. A high hygrometry at ground level or air is a risk factor that can promote the development of these phytopathogenic agents.

Agriculture technology: SYMPTOMS

The manifestation of symptoms depends on the microorganism (s) that cause the pathology but also the period of infection (before or after the emergence of seedlings). In general, before seedling emergence, seeds can be infected during germination. The infection progresses and precipitates browning and decay of seeds before they emerge from the soil. These decompose and disintegrate quickly. In the early stages of growth, just after seedling emergence, damping-off causes browning, drying, subsidence and death of seedlings. When this infection is late with the appearance of two or three leaves, brown and wet lesions appear at the root or base of the stem of the young plants. These infected areas rot, seedlings then grow hard and die later

Agriculture technology: Fight

A humid environment is conducive to the development of pathogens. Therefore, control of damping-off requires preventive measures that reduce the risk of infection by promoting adequate moisture and aeration of the plantation. To do this, avoid excessive watering, work for good drainage of the soil and irrigate the plantation in the morning to facilitate the drying of leaves and soil. Also, it is important to promote the flow of air by reducing the sowing rate or by lightening the seedlings too dense.

The use of infection-free seed, the destruction of infected plants, and hygienic measures of disinfecting agricultural implements or equipment in contact with contaminated soil greatly reduce the spread of seedling damping. Moreover, the application of a fungicide or a bactericide, far from being a preventive measure, nevertheless makes it possible to kill pathogens.

 

tomato seedlings

tomato seedlings

 

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Agriculture technology: Bacterial wilt of tomato

Agriculture technology: Bacterial wilt of tomato

Agriculture technology. Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato. Also called bacterial blight of the South, this bacteriosis causes important losses of yield. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions as well as in some temperate zones of the world.

Agriculture technology: Pathogen

Ralstonia solanacearum is the pathogen of bacterial wilt . This bacterium lives in the soil and is able to live prolonged for several years at a depth of 30 cm. Irrigation practices, bruising of plants from cultural practices, runoff water and agricultural tools facilitate the spread of this bacteria.

Agriculture technology: sYMPTOMS

The bacteria attacks the roots and then clogs the stem. It thus prevents the circulation of water and nutrients. The leaves are thus deprived of nutrients and thus manifest the symptoms of this bacteriosis, including foliage wilting. With the active development of the pathology, this wilt also affects the whole plant which fades, stunting and dying.

Other symptoms may appear in the neck with the emergence of adventitious roots on the main stems. At an advanced stage, the stem can be hollow. A cut of contaminated stems, ooze a sticky exudate dominated by a milky white color.

Agriculture technology: Means of struggle

The fight against bacterial wilt is essentially preventive. Prophylactic measures can prevent or curb the appearance of this plant pathology and the spread of the bacteria. The selection of uninfested plots and the use of pathogen-free seedlings, resistant varieties and crop rotation are preventative measures. To limit the spread of the pathogen, contaminated plants and plant residues must be destroyed, agricultural implements, equipment must be disinfected, and injury to leaves, roots, transplanting, transplanting must be avoided. or cultural maintenance.

Bacterial wilt of tomato

Bacterial wilt of tomato

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Agriculture technology: Tomato Growing

Agriculture Technology: Tomato Growing

Agriculture technology. The tomato can be cultivated in the field through several phases. And that lead to obtaining several early bouquets fed by a root system. For this method, it is necessary that the soil is deep and well smoked. And that need good irrigation.

It is not uncommon to see an above-ground cultivation of tomatoes, a very prominent technique on the industrial side. To achieve this, the plant is placed on several acres in greenhouses or tunnels. And it is then fed with fertilizer or a mixture of water. For a better cultivation of tomatoes, it is interesting to put in the neighborhood of the plant other vegetables like cabbage , green beans or celery.

Agriculture technology: Harvesting

Before harvesting the tomato, it is necessary to have the certainty of its maturity. In case it is an industrial crop. While for market tomatoes, the harvest can be harvested at an uncompleted stage of maturity as consumption will not occur immediately. Overall, the harvest is manual, although there are tomato harvesters, powerful self-propelled machines that harvest in one pass.

Agriculture technology: Temperatures and ideal periods

The tomato is a warm temperate plant and the favorable temperature for its good growth should be around 15 ° C at night and 25 ° C during the day. Being sun-loving – that is to say. Enjoying exposure to the sun. The plant does not like very low temperatures, especially those below + 2 ° C. As for the duration of its vegetation, it is very long and can extend over 6 months between the time of sowing and that of the harvest. The best time of year for growing tomatoes differs from place to place. We prefer the periods where the days are longer than the nights, as it is the case in July in the temperate zones with a duration of the day from 17 to 18 h.

Agriculture technology: diseases

The quality of the tomato can be bad because of several categories of diseases. There are plants with fungus diseases – such as alternaria. There are also viral diseases, such as the “tomato tan disease” caused by TSVV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and bacterial diseases including bacterial canker , caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium michiganense. The tomato also undergoes many pest attacks and can see its quality degraded by the presence of weeds.

 

Tomato Growing

Tomato Growing

 

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Agriculture technology: Tomato grilled in a pan

Agriculture technology: Tomato grilled in a pan

Agriculture technology. The tomato can be grilled in a pan before eating, a method of cooking applicable to this vegetable in two ways. It is possible to grind the tomato into pieces or reduce it to pulp before putting it in the heated oil. In both cases, the process is simple to drive and the cooking time is short. For this operation, choose quality tomatoes (without wrinkles or cracks).

The tomato is native to Peru and is consumed all over the world. Even if it can be eaten raw, it is regularly subjected to cooking. The methods used in this case are numerous including grilling. In this regard, the tomato can be grilled without difficulty and there are mainly two ways to go about it.

Agriculture technology: Preparation for grilling tomato in slices

The tomato is washed in cold water. It is then cut in half and the seeds in it are removed using the tip of the knife. It is advisable to cut the halves of the tomato into several small pieces. One of the best options is to cut the tomato into thin slices before grilling. In this case, it is not necessary to cut it in half. The tomato is placed on a kitchen board, in the width direction. The top is first cut and then cut every half centimeter. To simplify the task, it is necessary that the tomato is firm. The seeds visible in each puck should be removed before proceeding to the next step.

Agriculture technology: Grilled tomato in slices

Tomato rings can be seasoned with salt and pepper before being toasted. A stove in which oil is poured must be placed in the fire. We wait until the oil is hot before putting the tomato. It is good to return every moment so that the different parts of the pucks cook. In about 10 minutes, the grilled tomatoes are ready and this is reflected by the appearance of the vegetable that changes. It is best to cook on a low heat to prevent the tomato from burning. When grilling tomatoes, species containing a lot of water should be avoided.

Agriculture technology: Grilling tomato paste

To grill the tomato paste, it is necessary beforehand to mash it. In this case, it is first cooked in water for 10 minutes before switching to the mixer. The cooking stage is however skipped in some culinary operations. In this case, the fresh tomato is put directly into the mixer.

 

Once the purée is obtained, put oil in a pan for frying. The tomato paste is then put in the heated oil. The addition of salt and pepper is possible for seasoning. You can also put some chilli powder if you want the taste of tomato is slightly spicy. After 10 minutes, the grilled tomato paste is ready. Cooking should be done over low heat. It is important to turn the dough regularly to avoid sticking to the pan.

 

Tomato grilled in a pan

Tomato grilled in a pan

 

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