Wheat or wheat, Triticum aestivum
Wheat or wheat, Triticum aestivum. Is a cereal of the family Poaceae originating from the southern regions of the Near East and the mountainous areas of Ethiopia. It is grown in many parts of the world. In 2010, world wheat production was 651 million tonnes, making it the third-highest cereal in the world after maize and rice.
variety The French nomenclature classifies soft wheats according to their uses. So, do we distinguish:
- Bread Wheat (BP)
- Top breadmaking wheat (BPS)
- Improving or strength wheats (BAF)
- Wheat for other uses
The varieties can also be classified according to their precocity one distinguishes:
- Early wheats
- Semi-early wheats
- Semi-late wheats
- Late wheats
Its main use is undoubtedly the making of bread flour. This use is made possible because of its high gluten content, which gives the bread an appreciable elasticity. This flour is widely used in biscuit and pastry. Most of the wheat produced worldwide is for human consumption. The industry consumes a tiny portion that it uses for making alcohol, dextrose, gluten and malt.
Cultivation of soft wheat
Technological advances in soil preparation, soil fertilization, planting and crop rotations have made wheat a very profitable crop. Wheat cultivation in the tropics is only possible during the dry and cold season. In this case, the crop is irrigated. This is how 45% of the wheat produced is irrigated. The plot to be cultivated is first plowed, then harrowed and finally a hover.
Seeding in rows with spacings of 15 to 25 cm is strongly recommended. Seeding one hectare requires 100 to 150 kg of seed per hectare. These seeds will preferably be treated.
Ten tons of manure per hectare are buried in the soil during plowing . Calco-Magnesium amendments are recommended when dealing with acidic soils. An efficient drainage system is strongly recommended because the plant has difficulty surviving floods. Experts recommend a supply of 300 to 500 kg of NPK during sowing. Boron supplementation is also recommended. Thirty days after sowing, a urea supplement of one hundred kilograms per hectare will be provided to support the grain filling.
Disease and pest control
Wheats are attacked by a wide variety of diseases caused by fungi , viruses and bacteria. The bulk of disease control is through the use of resistant varieties. The fight against brown rust and black rust is mainly based on this strategy. The chemical fight against these evils intervenes only as a last resort. In order to limit the attack of soil insects against freshly sown seeds, it is recommended to treat the seeds with lindane. Chemical control of borers, aphids and caterpillars is only recommended from certain thresholds. The use of this fight below these thresholds is not economically viable. For example, it is necessary to fight the larvae of noctuids chemically only when their number reaches the ratio of a caterpillar for 17 ears.
Soft wheats are harvested when the straw turns yellow and wheat grains crack under the teeth. In the past, wheats were harvested by hand or with a sickle. The mowed sheaves were then tied and then beaten to separate the grains from the straw. With mechanization, harvesting is done in a single operation using a combine harvester. Manual harvesting only exists in poor and less advanced regions.